Antiphospholipid (Hughes) syndrome: beyond pregnancy morbidity and thrombosis
The Lupus Research Unit, The Rayne Institute, 4th Floor, Lambeth Wing, St Thomas' Hospital, London, SE1 7EH, UK
Journal of Autoimmune Diseases 2009, 6:3 doi:10.1186/1740-2557-6-3Published: 19 May 2009
The antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterised by recurrent arterial or venous thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity and the persistence of positive antiphospholipid antibodies. Many other clinical manifestations may occur including heart valve disease, livedo reticularis, thrombocytopenia and neurological manifestations such as migraine and seizures. We review a number of other manfestations including stenotic lesions, coronary artery disease and accelerated atherosclerosis, skeletal disorders and the concept of seronegative antiphospholipid syndrome.